Massara, Scarpi, and Parcheddu


  • Advertising language (abstract versus concrete) and advertising content (product-based versus lifestyle-building) do not directly affect willingness to pay.
  • Construal levels (how consumers interpret objects and brands) can be influenced in practice through a simple manipulation of the adjective-to-noun ratio in advertising text.
  • Construal levels significantly affect consumers’ willingness to pay for the advertised brand: A low construal level leads to a higher willingness to pay.
  • Product-centered advertisements increase willingness to pay as a result of low construal levels.