Introduction

Scale development, scale appropriateness, and scale utilization are crucial topics in the marketing research literature (Bendixen & Yurova, 2012; Cramphorn, 2012; Hanson & Rethans, 1980; Hartley & Betts, 2010; Hawkins, Albaum, & Best, 1974; Preston & Colman, 2000; Revilla, 2015; Rossiter, 2002, 2011). Marketing research commonly utilizes single-point capturing scales such as Likert (1934) scale and semantic differential scale (SDS; Osgood, 1952). Single-point capturing scales base their measurement properties on a varied number of response categories (points) linked to a question or statement, where the respondent chooses a single-point, with additional examples being the Stapel and visual analog scales.

Single-point capturing scales offer valuable information regarding respondents' perceptions on a specific topic. However, single-point capturing scales are limited in capturing uncertainty of respondent answers. Efforts to expand single-point capturing scales, for example, with phrase completion Likert scales (Hodge & Gillespie, 2003) or two-staged itemized rating scales (Albaum, 1997) have failed to address this built-in limitation of single-point capturing scale (Li, 2013).