Introduction

The application of corporate branding theory to the political arena allows political parties, candidates, politicians, and coalitions, otherwise known as "political brands," to develop desired identities and reputations, create an authentic-credible offering of intangible and tangible elements, and to project an ideal position to multiple stakeholders (Nielsen, 2017; Scammell, 2015; Speed, Butler, & Collins, 2015). Corporate political brand can be conceptualized as a trinity of elements including the party, leader, and policy (Butler, Collins, & Speed, 2011; Davies & Mian, 2010; Smith & French, 2011). Corporate "political" brands are multifaceted constructs yet should provide a clear, understandable, consistent message and avoid ambiguity to be considered authentic, credible, and successful (Gurau & Ayadi, 2011; Phipps, Brace-Govan, & Jevons, 2010; Smith & French, 2009). However, attempting to capture and comprehend political brands particularly from an "external" voter-citizen perspective can be challenging and confusing as there are very few models, tools, and techniques designed to undertake this task (Baines et al., 2014; Scammell, 2015; Speed et al., 2015). This raises the question of how to capture and understand the long-term external orientation of political brands?