The last eighteen months of elections in Western democracies have had one constant: volatility. Britain voting to leave the EU in June 2016 was the first in a series of surprising outcomes across democracies as diverse as France, the USA, New Zealand and Germany.

As the people casting ballots are the same as those standing at the checkouts, business leaders can benefit from understanding the drivers of electoral volatility and learning lessons from the parties and groups that have successfully motivated the public in a time of relative instability.

On the eve of the Brexit referendum poll renowned political scientist Professor John Curtice predicted a Remain win, but warned that confidence in any projection was misguided as there was "a cloud of uncertainty" surrounding voters' preferences.

A year and a half on, that cloud of uncertainty has not lifted; unexpected and unprecedented results have become the norm.

In France, a party founded just 12 months prior to election day won both the Presidency and a parliamentary majority.