Multidimensional green brand equity: A cross-cultural scale development and validation study

A plethora of studies indicate that brand equity is an intangible asset that played a vital role in increasing overall performance and customer preferences.

Introduction

The society is witnessing significant and steady environmental issues due to the large volume of environmental effluence caused by different marketers. Consumers face the fierce competition between traditional products and their environment-friendly as a prosperity or even survival option for some businesses. From consumers' point of view, the term "greening" indicates an action that mitigates negative effects on the environment, such as eco-purchasing (Ishaq, 2018). Haws et al. (2014) define green consumption as the propensity to explain the significance of environmental protection through purchasing eco-friendly products/services. Green consumption comprises of consumers' routine actions to reduce purchasing and decreasing consumption of less polluted products and services. On the contrary, sustainable consumption is a consumer act of purchasing, consuming, and disposing the goods that are related to environmental and social welfare. Companies are starting to acknowledge the current business potential in "going green" (Raska & Shaw, 2012) to obtain a competitive advantage (Ishaq et al., 2014). However, businesses' operations remain focused on short-term profits and self-centered approaches at the expense of communities' well-being (Porter & Kramer, 2011), thereby earning the dissatisfaction of different stakeholders, such as communities, supply chain partners, employees, and customers. Many countries are reaping enormous economic benefits from globalization, such as fuel for innovation; creation of jobs; fulfillment of customer needs; and development of trade, infrastructure, and economies. For instance, KPMG is exclusively focusing on environmental issues, such as the Global Green Initiative, while Walmart is constantly pressuring Procter & Gamble, General Electric, and other suppliers to produce eco-friendly products (Rosenbloom & Barbaro, 2009). But some organizations are losing their corporate reputation due to environmental incident like Takata airbags that were used by 19 automakers in the United States were eventually recalled due to issues in the airbags' inflator that may cause severe injury, explosion, and even death.

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